Animal Feed and Food Testing:
The Indian animal feed market is driven by the increasing government support in the country. After
the liberalization of the Indian economy in the early 1990s, the animal feed industry was presented
with new opportunities. The industry continues to have substantial growth potential owing to
increasing domestic consumption of animal-based products, rising livestock population, and growing
dependence on imports.
Animal feed are food items produced or grown for the consumption of livestock or poultry. These
products are carefully grown and blended with numerous nutritional ingredients that are essential
to maintain the health of animals. Some of the common feeds include pasture grasses, hay and
silage crops, cereal grains, and other by-products of food crops, such as pineapple bran, brewers'
grains, and sugar beet pulp. The animal feed industry encompasses various sectors such as cattle,
poultry, and aquaculture.
The animal feed market in India is segmented on the basis of product into:
Among all of these, poultry feed exhibits the most popular product type in the market due to the
highly organized poultry sector in India.
The report also covers the regional markets of animal feed in India, like North India, South India, East
India, and West India.
The Indian animal feed market is driven by the rising dairy industry, backed by the White Revolution
2.0, which has resulted in the rapid growth of the cattle population. Currently, India has the largest
cattle population in the world, thereby becoming a significant market for cattle feed. The demand
for commercial cattle feed is projected to increase in India, as the dairy industry structure is
becoming more organized. In addition to this, the government is also planning to launch schemes
and policies under the 12th Five Year Plan, which are aimed at improving the overall status of the
animal feed industry to provide for future demand.
The market is further aided by the emergence of non-traditional feed ingredients and technological
advancements as well as innovations, such as the creation of genetically modified animal feed
ingredients. The market is finding obstruction due to frequent disease outbreaks and high import
duties on feed ingredients.
Animal feed is used to provide the necessary nutrients for the growth, maintenance, and
reproduction of animals. The specific uses of animal feed can vary depending on the type of animal
and its intended use, but some common uses include:
- 1. Livestock production: Feed is used to support the growth and maintenance of animals such
as cattle, pigs, chickens, and sheep, which are raised for meat, milk, and eggs.
- 2. Poultry production: Feed is used to support the growth and maintenance of chickens and
other poultry, which are raised for meat and eggs.
- 3. Dairy production: Feed is used to support the growth and maintenance of cows and other
dairy animals, which are raised for milk production.
- 4. Aquaculture: Feed is used to support the growth and maintenance of fish and other aquatic
animals, which are raised for food and other purposes.
- 5. Pet food: Feed is used to support the growth and maintenance of pets such as dogs and cats,
which are kept as companions.
- 6. Animal husbandry: Feed is used to support the growth and maintenance of animals such as
horses, camels, and alpacas, which are used for transportation, sport, and other purposes.
- 7. Wildlife: Feed is used to support the growth and maintenance of animals such as deer, elk,
and bison in wildlife parks and zoos
- 8. Animal Nutrition research
The specific nutritional requirements of animals can vary depending on their age, breed, and activity
level, and feed manufacturers carefully formulate their products to meet these needs.
There are several parameters that are commonly tested in animal feed, including:
- 1. Nutritional content: This includes the levels of protein, fat, fiber, and other essential
nutrients in the feed.
- 2. Contaminants:This includes testing for harmful substances such as heavy metals, pesticides,
- 3. Physical characteristics: This includes testing for things like particle size, moisture content,
and bulk density.
- 4. Safety & shelf life: This includes testing for pathogenic microorganisms and spoilage
indicators such as pH and peroxide value.
- 5. Feed ingredients & additives:This includes testing for specific ingredients and additives, such
as antibiotics and growth hormones.
- 6. Mycotoxins: These are toxic compounds produced by certain types of mold that can grow on
feed ingredients and can cause a range of health issues in animals.
- 7. Other test such as proximate analysis, amino acid profile, mineral analysis, vitamine analysis,
It's important to note that the specific tests required may vary depending on the type of animal feed
and its intended use.
Feed Test as per Indian Standard 7874
Indian Standard 7874 is a standard for the testing of animal feed in India. It provides guidelines for
the determination of various parameters in animal feed, including:
- 1. Moisture content: This is the amount of water present in the feed, which can affect its
storage and handling.
- 2. Ash content:This is the inorganic residue remaining after the feed has been completely
burned, and provides an indication of the mineral content.
- 3. Crude protein: This is the total amount of protein in the feed, which is an essential nutrient
- 4. Crude fat: This is the total amount of fat in the feed, which is also an essential nutrient for
- 5. Crude fiber:This is the total amount of indigestible plant material in the feed, which can
affect the digestibility of the other nutrients.
- 6. Nitrogen-free extract: This is the remaining portion of the feed after the moisture, ash,
protein, fat, and crude fiber have been removed, and is mostly composed of carbohydrates.
- 7. Acid detergent fiber (ADF):This is a measure of the insoluble portion of the feed's crude
fiber, which can affect the digestibility of the other nutrients.
- 8. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF):This is a measure of the total fiber content of the feed,
including both the ADF and other types of fiber.
- 9. Metabolizable Energy (ME) : This is the amount of energy that is available to the animal after
accounting for the energy lost in the feces and urine.
- 10. Mineral analysis : : This includes the various minerals such as calcium, phosphorous,
- 11. Vitamin analysis : This includes various vitamins such as Vitamin A, E, D, K, etc.
These are the most common tests that are required to be carried out as per Indian Standard 7874,
However, depending on the type of animal feed and its intended use, additional tests may be
There are a wide variety of raw materials that can be used to make animal feed, including:
- 1. Grains: These include corn, wheat, barley, oats, and sorghum, which are rich in
carbohydrates and provide energy for animals.
- 2. Oilseeds: These include soybeans, sunflower seeds, and cottonseed, which are high in
protein and fat.
- 3. Forages: These include hay and silage, which are made from grasses and other plants and
are a good source of fiber for ruminant animals.
- 4. By-products: These are materials that are left over from other industries, such as distillers
grains from the ethanol industry, and can be used to supplement the protein and energy in
- 5. Proteins: These include meals made from soybeans, canola, cottonseed, sunflower, and
other oilseeds, which are rich in amino acids and are an important source of protein for
- 6. Minerals: This include various minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, etc.
- 7. Vitamins: This include various vitamins such as Vitamin A, E, D, K, etc.
- 8. Medicated feed premix : This includes feed premixes with medicinal compounds such as
antibiotics, growth promoters, etc.
- 9. Additives: This includes various feed additives such as enzymes, probiotics, prebiotics, etc.
The specific raw materials used in animal feed will depend on the type of animal and its nutritional
needs, as well as the availability and cost of the materials. Feed manufacturers carefully blend
different raw materials to create a balanced diet that meets the nutritional needs of the animal.